=A4 puts the contents of the cell A4 into the current cell
=A4/A5 can do math with cell contents
=SUM(A4:A8) puts the sum of A4 through A8 into the current cell
=AVERAGE(B2:B9) puts the average of B2 through B9 in the current cell
=STDEV(B2:B9) and the standard deviation
=SQRT(C4) will square-root a number (2) or another cell (C4)
=COS(radians) give your angle in radians, and it returns the cosine
Any text in a cell makes the entire cell contents text - i.e., "3 cm" is not a recognized number.
where range is the range of cells which contain the multiple measurements, e.g. c1:c10,
size is the number of measurements, e.g. 10.
Note: do not use Excels confidence function; their algorithm does not account for a small number of multiple measurements.
Highlight your column of x-values,
then holding down <Ctrl>, highlight your column of y-values,
then select the Insert tab, then choose the Scatter icon, then select the scatter graph without connecting lines.
Select the Layout tab and then add a chart title, labels for the x and y axes, and any other formatting you desire by clicking the appropriate icons.
Right click on the graph, then choose Select Data, then highlight the series you want to check, then click Edit to make sure the x and y data values are the correct ones.
You have to give Excel the data given by xrange and yrange:
Highlight a 2x2 block of cells, type (do not click on a cell just start typing):
=linest(yrange,xrange,1,1), then hit <Ctrl-Shift-Enter>
yrange,xrange is the range of cells which contains the y- and x-values for the data you want evaluated with the linest command (typically it is the data on your graph), e.g. b3:b7.
NOTE: The Chart Wizard asks for your data x axis first, while the linest command asks for your data y-axis first, be careful!
y = mx + b is the best fit straight line for the set of data, and sem, seb are the respective standard errors and appear in your 2x2 table as:
Note: remember that the 90% confidence level is given by tau times the standard error.
Right click on one of the data points on your graph and select Add Trendline, click the Trendline Options tab and select Display Equation on chart. Click Close and the best-fit line and the lineís equation will appear on the graph.
First, left click on the graph to highlight it. This makes available the Chart Tools feature, which allows for customization of the Design, Layout, and Format of the chart. These options appear as tabs at the top of the Excel worksheet.
Data Graphed Incorrectly: Select the Design tab and click on the Select Data icon. Then, highlight the appropriate Series and click Edit. Click the icon to the right of the X Values box, and highlight the correct x-values on the spreadsheet. Then click the icon again. Do the same for the y-values in the Y Values box. When finished, click OK.
Editing the Series Name: Select the Design tab and click on the Select Data icon. Then, highlight the appropriate Series and click Edit. Enter the new name in the Series name box and click OK.
Changing the Graph Type: To change the selected graph to a new type, select the Design tab and click on the Change Chart Type icon. Then, choose the desired Chart subtype.
Editing the Chart Title: Select the Layout tab and click on the Chart Title icon. Choose the desired format for the chart title. A Chart Title box will then appear in the graph. Click on it and enter the new title.
Editing Axis Titles: Select the Layout tab and click on the Axis Titles icon. Select which axis title to edit and choose the desired format for the axis title. An Axis Title box will then appear in the graph. Click on it and enter the new axis title.
Inserting Gridlines: Select the Layout tab and click on the Gridlines icon to choose from the available options.
Moving a Chart to Another Worksheet: Select the Design tab and click on the Move Chart icon. Then, choose the new location for the chart and click OK.
Switching Between Charts and Spreadsheets on Different Sheets: To go back and forth between graphs (plotted on their own sheet) and spreadsheets, or just between different spreadsheets, click on the tabs at the bottom of the page (e.g. Sheet1 or Chart1).
Hints for Printing: If the column widths are the standard (i.e., you havenít changed them; Excelís standard is 8.43 wide), then only everything through column I will print on a page, if you go past that to the right, then it will get cut off and print on a second page. Shrink graphs that are not on a sheet of their own so that they fit on a single page. Also remember that row 52 is the lowest line on the first page.